All your science in here


Einstein was enlightened, I know this as he perfected the art of napping.


Well they do have more stuff. But they also have more space. The dot in the middle ranges from very, very, very tiny (Hydrogen) to just very, very tiny (Uranium, say). But the clouds of lightweight electrons which occupy much of the remaining space (in a sense) get bigger as the number of electrons rises. Actually it’s not quite that simple, so Uranium isn’t the biggest atom - Cesium is. This picture gives an indication of atomic size for the different elements



OK, ta. I get that now. Useful disgram

I understand that all atoms are different for each element, the number of electrons etc determines whether it’s hydrogen, lead, iron etc etc. This much I understand. But are all electrons the same? Is there a characteristic the differentiates a hydrogen electron from an uranium electron?


All electrons are the same.

There are two other sub-atomic particles which are ‘like’ electrons but heavier. One’s called the muon (200-odd times heavier) and the other is the tau (3500 times heavier IIRC). They are both unstable and undergo radioactive decay pretty quickly. The muon lasts long enough that there is time (just) do some chemistry with it.

Then there are the three corresponding anti-particles of course (positron, anti-muon, anti-tau).



Excellent! Thanks for that, I’ve wondered about that often.

When you say sub-atomic particles I take it these exist inside the atom? Nothing exists that isn’t in an atom does it?


Further research is needed regarding the emissions from @Jim’s arse before that can be confirmed. There’s a Nobel prize waiting to be won, providing you’re prepared to endure the working conditions.


I presume this kind of work takes place in a stinklotron…:unamused:


No, only in a nightmare :open_mouth:


If we get Jim to fart through a fleece, would it be golden?




I’m not quite sure I understand the question. It is possible for particles to be ‘free’ of an atom - there are free electrons travelling through the vacuum in a valve, for example. And the Large Hadron Collider contains a beam of free protons. I was trying to think whether there are any particles which are never bound into atoms and I guess that particles like the neutrino fall into that category. Although they can be created inside atoms, when they are they immediately escape. The same could be said to be true of the photon.



Again many thanks. I see my question wasn’t formed that well, that’s because I barely understand this stuff. But I’m very keen to.




An element is defined by the number of protons in its nucleus - this gives each element its atomic number in the periodic table.


Yes correct. I’m digging all this up from 40+ years ago


Top Quark !!


People who try generally end up with purest green.

Anyway, vast forces beyond comprehension at the limits of the universe, all so the equivalent of @ICHM 130 million light years can have bling taps in their bathroom…


There is a cool curve of atomic stability. Below iron, light elements fuse (like hydrogen fuses into helium); above iron, heavy ones split (like uranium splits). So making heavy things fuse requires a whole shit load of energy input, like neutron stars colliding.

I think that even a supernova only releases elements up to iron. That’s how big this is.


Stronzetto’s convict brother ‘Neutrino’ is so slippery he could get under a door wearing ten top hats. Quite ingenious really, but then again he doesn’t share his brothers sticky affliction to UHU. He would make an excellent cat burglar if he wasn’t forever being arrested for various crimes against public decency.



Non-mathematical explanation on the back of a postcard please … :smile:.